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Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP)

Invasive Tests

Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP)

The Intra Aortic Balloon Pump is a device used to support a patient with low blood pressure in the presence of severe Coronary Artery Disease or any other cardiac pathology that symptomatically causes severe low blood pressure.

Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump is instituted by inserting a balloon catheter in the patients descending thoracic aorta via femoral artery. The balloon is passed to a position in situ 2cm below the left Subclavian artery, but above the Renal arteries. This balloon is attached to an Intra Aortic Balloon Pump System that controls the inflation and deflation of the balloon.   

• Intra Aortic Balloon Pump System

The intra-aortic balloon exerts its effect by volume displacement and pressure changes caused by rapidly shuttling helium gas in and out of the balloon chamber. As gas is shuttled into the balloon chamber, it occupies a space within the aorta equal to its volume (Normally 40cc).This is known as balloon inflation and occurs during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle.

The sudden occupation of gas in the balloon upon inflation causes blood to be moved from its original position superiorly and inferiorly to the balloon, resulting in prolonged filling of Coronary Arteries and the Head arteries. Since the volume in the aorta is suddenly increased, and the aortic wall is fairly rigid, the intra-aortic pressure increases sharply.

With deflation of the intra-aortic balloon, this chain of events is in reverse. A sudden fall in aortic volume is noted and causes a sudden decrease in aortic pressure. In response to the local fall in pressures, the blood in the adjacent areas moves to normalize the pressure in the aortic cavity as a whole.  

• Balloon Pump Screen

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